Open Journal Systems

Learning paragraph writing electronically: An insight into impact of blended learning strategies on ESL learners in Pakistan

Saqib Mahmood, Humera Sharif, Faiza Aleem

Article ID: 2057
Vol 6, Issue 1, 2024, Article identifier:

VIEWS - 177 (Abstract) 130 (PDF)


A comprehensive teaching plan, mindful practices and effective use of technology can boost the writing skills of Second Language Learners by improving spontaneity, naturalness, and accuracy. A vibrant learning community, strongly connected through on-site and online mediums, is ideal for enhancing the skills of foreign language students. This research focuses on enhancing students’ paragraph writing skills by blending traditional and modern technology tools in a hybrid form of instruction. The participants of the study were divided into experimental and control groups; they were students of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners at a private university in Pakistan. After the pre-test, both groups were taught the same curriculum through different pedagogy for six weeks. The experimental group received instructions in a blended mode with the help of technology tools. The results were analyzed at pre and post-research levels by applying a t-test. The results showed a noticeable improvement in the skills of the experimental group. The same course taught with a traditional pedagogy could not produce the desirable results in the control group. The analysis includes vocabulary, reflective thinking, adherence to language mechanics, and grammar to boost the students’ creative writing ability for paragraph composition.


blended Learning; ESL learners; paragraph writing; t-test; multi-modal

Full Text:



Ade-Ojo, G. O., & Sowe, N. (2011). Using technology in the development of a collaborative approach to feedback and more active reflection: An exploration of trainee teachers’ views. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 503–519.

Afshari, M., Bakar, K. A., Luan, W. S., Samah, B. A., & Fooi, F. S. (2009). Factors affecting teachers’ use of information and communication technology. International Journal of Instruction, 2(1), 77–104.

Agala, C. B., Fried, B. J., Thomas, J. C., Reynolds, H. W., Lich, K. H., Whetten, K., Zimmer, C., & Morrissey, J. P. (2020). Reliability, validity and measurement invariance of the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ) among HIV-positive women in Ethiopia: a quasi-experimental study. BMC Public Health, 20(1).

Aggrawan, A. (2020). Percentage of effect of blended learning model on learning outcome. Consortium-Saudi Arabia SDL, IEEE Xplore.

Ahmad, Z. (2020). Action Research in EFL: Exploring Writing Pedagogy Through a Task-based Lesson Delivery. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 11(3), 379.

Al-Jarf, R. The Difficulty of Teaching English Writing Courses to Arab Students.

Amgott, N., & Gorham, J. A. (2022). Embodied modes in L2 French video reflections: Supporting metalinguistic awareness, organization, and community. Foreign Language Annals, 56(2), 501–523.

Barker, T. T., & Kemp, F. O. (1990). Network theory: A postmodern pedagogy for the writing classroom. In: Handa C (editor). Computers and community: teaching composition in the twenty-first century. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook. pp. 1-27.

Boyle, T., Bradley, C., Chalk, P., Jones, R., & Pickard, P. (2003). Using Blended Learning to Improve Student Success Rates in Learning to Program. Journal of Educational Media, 28(2–3), 165–178.

Brophy, J. E. (1991). Looking in the classroom, 5th ed. New York: Harper Collins.

Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education. Harvard University Press.

Caginalp, G., & Balevonich, D. (2003). A Theoretical Foundation for Technical Analysis. Journal of Technical Analysis, 59(5–22).

Canals, L. (2021). Multimodality and translanguaging in negotiation of meaning. Foreign Language Annals, 54(3), 647–670.

Cameron, B. (2003). The effectiveness of simulation in a hybrid and online networking course. TechTrends, 47(5), 18–21.

Carroll, B. (2003). Going hybrid: Online course components increase flexibility of on-campus courses. Online Classroom, p. 4, 7.

Caruso, M., Colombi, A. G., & Tebbit, S. (2017). Teaching how to Listen. Blended Learning for the Development and Assessment of Listening Skills in a Second Language. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 14(1), 84–103.

Chappelle, C. (2001). Computer Applications in Second Language Acqisition: Foundations for Teaching, Testing and Research.

Dailey, E. M. (1991). The relative efficacy of cooperative learning versus individualized learning on the written performance of adolescent students with writing problems. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Davies, A., & Herbest, S. (2013). Co-constructing Success Criteria: Assessment in the Service of Learning. Education Canada, 53(3), 16–19.

Dowling, C., Godfrey, J. M., & Gyles, N. (2003). Do hybrid flexible delivery teaching methods improve accounting students’ learning outcomes? Accounting Education, 12(4), 373–391.

Dziuban, C., Hartman, J., & Moskal, P. (2004). Blended learning. ECAR Research Bulletin. Available online: (accessed on 27 July 2023).

Ernst, D. C., Hodge, A., & Yoshinobu, S. (2017). What Is Inquiry-Based Learning? Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 64(6), 570–574.

Ferris, D.R., & Hedgcock, J.S. (2005). Teaching ESL Composition: Purpose, process and practice, 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Garrison, D. R. (2003). E-Learning in the 21st Century. Routledge.

Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. London: EFU.

Haile Michael, A. (1993). Developing a service English syllabus to meet the academic demands and constraints of the Ethiopian university context [PhD thesis]. Addis Ababa University.

Hoven, D. (1999). CALL-ing the learner into focus: Towards a learner-centered model. WORLDCALL, op.cit. (pp. 149-168). Athabasca University Library and Scholarly Resources.

Huang, X., Kim, N., & Christianson, K. (2018). Gesture and Vocabulary Learning in a Second Language. Language Learning, 69(1), 177–197.

Iizuka, T., Nakatsukasa, K., & Braver, A. (2020). The Efficacy of Gesture on Second Language Pronunciation: An Exploratory Study of Handclapping as a Classroom Instructional Tool. Language Learning, 70(4), 1054–1090.

Kaur, M. (2013). Blended Learning-Its Challenges and Future. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 612–617.

Kellogg, R. T. (2008). Training writing skills: A cognitive developmental perspective. Journal of Writing Research, 1(1), 1–26.

Maican, M. A., & Cocoradă, E. (2021). Online Foreign Language Learning in Higher Education and Its Correlates during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability, 13(2), 781.

Mapuva, J. (2010). Confronting challenges to e-learning in Higher Education Institutions. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.

Mayer, R. (2005). The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Cambridge University Press.

Markowski, M., Essex, R., Stiell, M., & Jameson, J. (2022). The Use of Digital Game-based Learning (DGBL) in Teachers’ Training: A Scoping Review.

Mei, B., Brown, G. T. L., & Teo, T. (2017). Toward an Understanding of Preservice English as a Foreign Language Teachers’ Acceptance of Computer-Assisted Language Learning 2.0 in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 56(1), 74–104.

Neo, T. K. K. (2003). Using multimedia in a constructivist learning environment in the Malaysian classroom. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 19(3).

O’Toole, J. M., & Absalom, D. J. (2003). The Impact of Blended Learning on Student Outcomes: is there room on the horse for two? Journal of Educational Media, 28(2–3), 179–190.

Rear, D. (2017). Reframing the Debate on Asian Students and Critical Thinking: Implications for Western Universities. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Education, 12(2).

Rogers, C. R. (1994). Freedom to Learn, 2nd ed. Columbus, OH: Merrill/Macmillan.

Siemens, A. (2005). Learning theory for the digital age, connectivism.

Siemens, G., Gašević, D., & Dawson, S. (2015). Preparing for the Digital University: a review of the history and current state of distance, blended, and online learning. Athabasca University.

Smith, B., Caputi, P., & Rawstorne, P. (2000). Differentiating computer experience and attitudes toward computers: an empirical investigation. Computers in Human Behavior, 16(1), 59–81.

Smith, B. E., Amgott, N., & Malova, I. (2021). “It Made Me Think in a Different Way”: Bilingual Students’ Perspectives on Multimodal Composing in the English Language Arts Classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 56(2), 525–551.

Smith, B. E., Pacheco, M. B., & Khorosheva, M. (2020). Emergent Bilingual Students and Digital Multimodal Composition: A Systematic Review of Research in Secondary Classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 56(1), 33–52.

Urzúa, A., & Asención‐Delaney, Y. (2023). Examining novice language teachers’ reflections in an online community of practice. Foreign Language Annals, 56(1), 53–74.

Uzunboylu, H., Ozdamli, F. (2011), The Trends in Technology Supported Collaborative Learning Studies in 21st Century. World Journal on Educational Technology, 3(2).

Wang, H., & Gearhart, D. (2006). Designing and developing webbased instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Wilson, L. M., & Corpus, D. A. (2001). The Effects of Reward Systems on Academic Performance. Middle School Journal, 33(1), 56–60.

Yun-hong, B. (2009). On University Students’ attitude towards Computer-aided English Learning. Taiwan: A questionnaire survey.

Zimanyi, M. A., Megaw, P. L., & Meldrum, K. (2015). Catering for the masses.

(177 Abstract Views, 130 PDF Downloads)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Saqib Mahmood, Humera Sharif, Faiza Aleem

License URL: